Civil Liability Involving Inpatient Suicide
In most civil cases involving liability for someone’s death, it’s usually pretty easy to link the defendant (the person who is allegedly at fault) with the actions that caused the death (e.g., a driver runs a red light and strikes a pedestrian, killing them; a surgeon makes an obvious error during a routine procedure and the patient dies).
This is also true in civil cases in which family members or other loved ones try to hold someone else (in most cases, an institution such as a hospital or treatment center) liable for a suicide of their loved ones.
According to the Psychiatric Times, of the 35,000 or more suicides per year in the US, about 1,800 (6%) are inpatient suicides. This statistic is too high.
Determining Civil Liability
By definition, someone who commits suicide directly causes of his or her own death. As such, in the case of a personal injury lawsuit against a defendant who allegedly caused someone else’s suicide, the onus that falls on the prosecution is proving the defendant’s actions (or inaction, in most cases) were a substantial factor in the deceased person’s suicide. This is usually easy to prove. Most, if not all inpatient suicides are preventable if the standard of care is followed by the healthcare providers entrusted to care for the suicidal patient.
Another major element in a case of suicide is “foreseeability.” That is, was it reasonably foreseeable that the deceased person would commit suicide as a result of the defendant’s action or inaction? For instance, psychiatrists have a duty to protect their patients by properly assessing their potential risk of suicide. Reasonable precautions, such as one to one monitoring of the patient, need to be taken after the risk is identified and maintained until the risk is deemed low enough or the patient is discharged.
Inpatient suicides are viewed as the most avoidable and preventable because they occur in close proximity to staff. Additionally, courts and juries generally perceive inpatient units as having a greater degree of control over the patient and, thus, a greater responsibility to prevent suicides.1
Proving Liability in Suicide Cases
When it comes to proving an institution is liable for the patient’s suicide or injury, the plaintiff (the person bringing the lawsuit) must first prove that the provider was negligent in their care for the patient.
Negligence occurs when a health provider (including physicians, psychologists, social workers, counselors, therapists, or hospital employees) fails to comply with the standard of practice for providers with similar training and experience. In some cases, the provider may have done something a reasonably prudent provider would not have done in the same/similar situation. In other cases, the provider has failed to do something that a reasonably prudent provider would have done.
If the plaintiff can prove negligence on the part of the provider, they must then prove that the defendant’s negligence caused the suicide or other injury. At this point, it becomes important to determine if the health provider could have or should have anticipated the suicide attempt or some other injury (this goes back to foreseeability).
Because no mental health provider can guarantee a successful result, they will not be held liable simply because the treatment failed. The care must have been negligence, or the provider will not be liable.
Who Can File a Suit Following a Suicide?
Although a suicide affects all of us, the law only grants certain individuals the right to pursue a lawsuit arising out of a patient’s death. If negligence by a mental health professional causes injury short of death, typically only the patient has the right to bring a lawsuit.
In some circumstances, the patient’s spouse can join as a party to the lawsuit, recovering for the injury that he or she personally sustained as a result of the negligent treatment of the patient.
Where the negligence has resulted in death, the proper action is a wrongful death and survival suit. This action is brought either by the patient’s spouse, parents, and/or children, the decedent’s estate, or both. The law varies from state to state. That’s why you should get a legal opinion specifically tailored to your case.
At GreeningLaw P.C., we see too many Americans losing family members to suicide because they assumed their loved ones were receiving competent, professional care. That’s why we feel that reducing the suicide rate in America’s healthcare institutions starts with holding mental health professionals accountable.
GreeningLaw P.C. is one of the most recognized personal injury law firms in the state because we know how to make sure you are properly compensated for your suffering. Our experienced attorneys care about you and your outcome, and we will treat your case with the same respect and thoroughness with which we would our own families. We work on a contingency basis, meaning you don’t pay for anything unless you receive compensation for your case.
Contact us today for a free consultation. We will review the elements of your case, discuss the possible compensation you may receive, and suggest the best course of action.
We fight the legal battle so you have time for healing and renewal.
Knoll, J. (2012). Inpatient Suicide: Identifying Vulnerability in the Hospital Setting. [online] Psychiatric Times. Available at: http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/suicide/inpatient-suicide-identifying-vulnerability-hospital-setting [Accessed 18 Oct. 2018].
Suicide Is Preventable – Know the Signs and Symptoms
Suicide is entirely preventable with the right care, support and diagnosis. No single event or cause needs to be the trigger for suicide, but there are certain symptoms and signs that you can watch out for to prevent suicide.
Suicide Warning Signs
Often, a sign of suicide can be hopelessness. This can include phrases like “No one will ever understand how sad I feel” or “I will never find love again.” It can also pertain to lack of certainty and sadness toward the future or future plans.
Preparing for the Worst
Preparing for the worst can be an indication of suicide. This means the person may be preparing their will or selling their belongings at what may seem like an odd time in their life. Keep an eye out for behaviors like this.
Living on the edge or doing “daredevil” activities could be a sign as well. Often, the person could joke about jumping off a bridge without a bungee cord or turning into traffic. This is a huge sign the person may be mentally unstable and may need help.
As always, it is good to care closely for someone who has recently experienced trauma. Trauma can trigger a lot of emotions and can sometimes lead to suicidal thoughts. If you have a friend or family member who recently experienced a traumatic experience, try to check in on them frequently.
Withdrawal is a huge symptom of suicide. It means the person stops communicating with their friends and family or simply goes off the grid for a period of time. It is likely that someone withdrawing may be experiencing depression that could lead to suicide. Try to reach out to anyone who seems like they may be withdrawing to ensure they feel supported and loved.
Depression Or Excessive Sadness
Sadness or depression are definitely symptoms to watch. Extreme depression can cause feelings of hopelessness, loneliness, sadness and may be a sign of suicide. Try to be there for the person through their sadness and talk with them through their problems. You can also recommend seeing a therapist or doctor.
Sometimes, extreme substance abuse can be an indication of a bigger problem. Often, depression can be a catalyst for substance abuse and the two partnered together can indicate larger problems. Advise loved ones to get help if they struggle with substance abuse.
And Much More…
Anything from historical factors like a family history of suicide to prolonged stress factors like bullying can be a sign that suicide may be considered or acted upon. Even aggression or oversleeping can indicate a larger problem. More obvious signs could be calling loved ones and saying goodbye or threatening to commit suicide.
What To Do If You Think Someone Is Suicidal
It is said that people with a good support system of friends and family in addition to mental care services have a less likely chance to commit suicide. So, support your friends and family to the best of your ability.
Also, ask for help from others and seek professional help. Remember to take anyone who threatens suicide seriously—it could save their life! Try not to leave the person alone and remove any potentially dangerous objects (such as guns, knives or drugs) from their reach.
If You Or Someone Close To You Needs Immediate Help
Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Call the National Suicide Prevention Hotline, available 24 hours a day at 1-800-273-8255.
If You Need Legal Help, Look No Further Than GreeningLaw, P.C.
At GreeningLaw, P.C., we have extensive experience in holding mental healthcare providers accountable when suicide or attempted suicide occurs in a healthcare institution. At our firm, our motto is that “we fight the legal battle, so you have time for healing and renewal.” This means we are here for you and your family in time of need. We are sensitive to the many issues that can occur when a family member has been seriously injured or killed, so we represent our clients on a contingency fee basis. This means that you can focus on your family while we take care of the financial commitments of legal action up front. You’ll reimburse us after the settlement and we will walk you through the process. We like to discuss all the details of the process right from the start, so there are no surprises. Our fees are contingent on us winning compensation for you; so our goal is to get you the best compensation possible.
Call (972) 934-8900 for Robert Greening, at any time for a free consultation! He’s here to help and GreeningLaw, P.C. is one of the most recognized law firms when it comes to Personal Injury and Wrongful Death cases.